Prior to reading any one of these, please take a moment to look in the book and the professor’s lectures to see if you can find an answer on your own. Seeking out the knowledge for yourself will help to fix it in your mind, and you are less likely to forget it come test day.

Unless otherwise noted, almost all of the answers come from the book, Methods in Behavioral Research. No challenge to copyright or plagiarism intended.

Chapter 5:

Define reliability of a measure of behavior and describe the difference between test-retest, internal consistency, and interrater reliability


Discuss ways to establish construct validity, including face validity, content validity, predictive validity, concurrent validity, convergent validity, and discriminant validity.

Describe the problem of reactivity of a measure of behavior and discuss ways to minimize reactivity.

Describe the properties of the four scales of measurement: nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio.

Chapter 12:

Contrast the three ways of describing results: comparing group percentages, correlating scores, and comparing group means

Describe a frequency distribution, including the various ways to display a frequency distribution

Describe the measures of central tendency and variability

Define a correlational coefficient

Define effect size

Describe the use of a regression equation and multiple correlation to predict behavior

Discuss how a partial correlation addresses the third-variable problem

Summarize the purpose of structural equation models


Chapter 13:

Explain how researchers use inferential statistics to evaluate sample data


Distinguish between the null hypothesis and the research hypothesis

Discuss probability in statistical inference, including the meaning of statistical significance

Describe the t test and explain the difference between one-tailed and two-tailed tests

Describe the F test, including systematic variance and error variance

Describe what a confidence interval tells you about your data

Distinguish between Type I and Type II errors

Discuss the factors that influence the probability of a Type II error

Discuss the reasons a researcher may obtain nonsignificant results

Define power of a statistical test

Describe the criteria for selecting an appropriate statistical test